Friday, February 29, 2008

PODCAST: Life in British New York: 1776-1783

Join us as we stroll through the streets of revolutionary New York, examining what it would have been like to be a New Yorker under British rule.

Listen to it for free on iTunes or other podcasting services. Or you can download or listen to it HERE

New York as it looked during British occupation (i.e. before various lower Manhattan landfills!)

The HMS Jersey, docked right off the show of Brooklyn, and home to the deaths of hundreds of American soldiers and prisoners

The horrible conditions of the prison ships, as hinted at in this illustration

The Prison Ships Martyrs Monument in Fort Greene, honoring the thousands who died nearby off the shore of Brooklyn

The mystery of George Washington's Culper Ring spy gang has inspired more than a few romantic tales:

George Washington jubilantly returns to the city

Fraunces Tavern, site of George Washington's farewell speech to the Continental Army

Fraunces Tavern today:

Want to peek inside the tomb buried underneath Fort Greene's Prison Ships Martyrs Monument? How about a map of the communication lines between the various spy factions of the Culper Ring?

Thursday, February 28, 2008

Name That Neighborhood: Fort Greene

Fort Greene Park in 1908

Some New York neighborhoods are simply named for their location on a map (East Village, Midtown). Others are given prefabricated designations (Soho, Dumbo). But a few retain names that link them intimately with their pasts. Other entries in this series can be found here.

The Brooklyn neighborhood of Fort Greene gathers some of the borough's best known riches within its boundaries, including Brooklyn's tallest building the Williamsburgh Savings Bank, the Brooklyn Academy of Music, and the park in which the neighborhood gets its name -- Fort Greene Park.

However, if I'm being critical, the neighborhood should probably be called Fort Putnam, not Fort Greene.

As you'd expect, this area was the location of a vital Revolutionary-era fort used by the Americans to defend themselves from encroaching British forces. Shaped like a traditional five-pronged star, the fort was named after Rufus Putnam, a general whose claim to fame would actually come post-war, as the head of the Ohio Company, which purchased and settled the territory of Ohio.

Below: An old map of Fort Putnam and Wallabout Bay

Fort Putnam was one of three forts in close proximity to create a (what would be unsuccessful) defensive barrier. One diamond-shaped fort called Fort Box (named after major Daniel Box) sat smack near the border of today's Cobble Hill. The third fortification -- get ready to be confused -- was Fort Greene. The first Fort Greene, also a star shaped fortification, sat between Box and Putnam.

This fort was named after major general Nathaniel Greene, who would become one of the war's most successful officers and essentially Washington's most trusted adviser. Greene did oversee the construction of Fort Putnam, so figure in his post-war fame into the equation, and it will not be a surprise to discover that the fort was renamed Fort Greene for its potential use during the War of 1812.

Many old fortifications were refitted in 1812 in case of another British invasion, including the first Fort Greene (now called Fort Masonic). The British did attack Washington D.C. and Baltimore during the War of 1812, but never bothered to make it up to New York harbor this time around.

And just in case you're interested, during the War of 1812, Fort Box was renamed Fort Fireman.

A neighborhood soon developed around Fort Greene, and by 1847 the fortification was replaced by a park -- Washington Park -- to be later replaced by the rolling, monument bedecked, Olmstead-and-Vaux designed Fort Greene Park in 1864.

Tying the park back to its Revolutionary War past is its crowning monument, the Prison Ship Martyr's Monument(at right), honoring those who died in British prison ships kept not that far from here in Wallabout Bay (that's basically the small bay between the Williamsburg and Manhattan bridges on the Brooklyn side).

Wednesday, February 27, 2008

One-eyed Willie takes the stage

Even though the British kept the burnt, chaotic city of New York as their military base during the Revolutionary War, life did manage to go on for some residents. In fact the population of New York began to swell, as those still loyal to the British -- for practical as well as philosophical reasons -- flocked to the city, often taking residence in the homes of those who fled.

Eleven year old William Dunlap, born in New Jersey, came to New York in 1777 with his family. An artistic boy with a love of Shakespeare, he became engrossed in the city's ramshackle theater scene, revitalized with the influx of British soldiers in need of entertaining.

The next year, an accident with a flying piece of firewood left him blind on one eye. Unbelievably this did not stop the lad from developing adroit skills as an artist. By the end of the war, he was even given the opportunity to paint a portrait of George Washington. That portrait, seen to the left, is now property of the U.S. Senate.

But Dunlap's early fascination with the British theater manifested itself in his first play -- The Modest Soldier, or Love in New York, produced in 1787.

Dunlap became one of America's first leading playwrights, specializing in English translations of French or German productions. He also managed and owned two of New York's leading first stages, the John Street Theater (15-21 John Street) and later the far tonier Park Playhouse at 25 Park Row. (The John Street location is a Roxy diner now; Park Playhouse is a branch of J&R Music World.)

By the first decades of the 19th Century, however, he returned to his love of painting, where he ultimately achieved national fame. His portrait of Samuel Griffin (below), painted in 1809 currently hangs in the National Gallery of Art.

This renaissance man would best be known, however, for a publication he wrote later in life, with the rather dry title of 'History of the Rise and Progress of the Arts of Design in the United States', essentially the first written history of the arts in the United States.

Not too shabby for a maimed, one-eyed New York boy.

Tuesday, February 26, 2008

The most famous tree in 1776

I often try and take my own pictures of various locales I speak about, however the battery of my camera died on me during my Prospect Park journey. The picture above of Lookout Hill and other amazing photography of New York landscapes by Dalton Rooney can be found here.


What's strange about talking about New York in the Revolutionary War is that it's virtually impossible to imagine it happening. The city has expanded and transformed to such a degree that the notion of gun smoke hanging over a Harlem neighborhood or thousands of British soldiers marching through what is essentially midtown Manhattan is a little daunting to comprehend.

Prospect Park may be the one place in the New York region where the terrain is at least partially similar to how it was in 1776. And it happens to be sight of a few Revolutionary War skirmishes and landmarks still strewn through the park today:

-- The Maryland Society Battle Monument (pictured above) atop Lookout Hill is the most difficult to find, but you're rewarded with a vista that's fairly undisturbed since its days as a strategic hilltop. This isolated piece honors the greatly outnumbered Maryland volunteers who lost their lives on this hill and in battles nearby, as the British rushed through the countryside.

Erected in 1895, this may be a small monument but it's the only one Stanford White ever designed for the park. Most notable is the somber George Washington quote etched into the side: "Good God, what brave fellows I must this day lose"

-- A leisurely stroll away is the Dongan Oak Monument, just west of Prospect Park Zoo. The Dongan Oak was a tree of terrific size at least a hundred years old by the time Washington's army took this area, now known as Battle Pass. By cutting down this tree, the Americans were able to hold off the British until they were cut off from behind and had to flee. This monument was installed in 1922 with a noble eagle atop it. The eagle has actually been stolen and replaced twice since then, perhaps by British people.

-- Close by are two other monuments to Battle Pass, plaques affixed to boulders alongside East Side Drive through the park. Of interest in the one on the north side, which indicates the position of Valley Grove House, a famous tavern that bore witness to the violence. As it has been described, the tavern was "an old, topple-down inn, and stood in the lowest part of the road; in a damp evening, one can feel the chill of the heavy air in turning towards it on the way from Brooklyn to Flatbush."

-- On the other side of the Zoo is the Leffert's Homestead, one of Brooklyn's most famous homes, and an excellent example of an early New York farm house. However, this site, in its relation to the Revolutionary War, needs to come with a big ole asterisk, as 1) the original was burned in 1776 by escaping American forces looking to distract oncoming British forces, and 2) sat somewhere else entirely, on Flatbush Avenue. It was moved to its present location in 1918.

Monday, February 25, 2008

Maps to an American catastrophe

Definitely something you'll need to click into to see all the rich detail, but below is a copy of a British map run in the London Gazette, outlining the trek of the British soldiers in New York and Brooklyn (then entirely called Long Island). Although quite distorted, it references some of the main points in their push through the Brooklyn lands, including New Utrect, Gravesend (where they first landed), Bedford. A second map below that better illustrates the Jamaica pass, and how the British were somehow able to sidestep most of Washington's forces

Saturday, February 23, 2008

History in the making - 2/23

Jack Straw and Condi Rice (as played by the Bowery Boys) sit debating at the U.N. Security Council

We'd like to thank Caroline Jeanjot and Dan Schreiber for giving the two of us a smashing behind the scenes tour of the United Nations building last week. We had an absolutely fantastic time. There are regular tours of the United Nations building -- check their site for more info -- but we can't promise they'll let you sit in those chairs.

The Center for Architecture lists New York's 10 greatest buildings. [Gothamist]

For many years, New York's premier sporting venue was the Polo Ground. Wanna see what's left of it? [City Room]

Ever walk by the New School and wonder what that convex-fronted building at 61 Fifth Avenue was? Jeremiah checks it out. [Vanishing New York]

John Lennon's Upper West Side hangout Cafe La Fortuna closes this weekend. [AM New York]

And let's check in on latest on one of my personal decaying New York landmarks, the Renwick Ruins. Replace it with a chic waterfront eatery! [Roosevelt Islander]

Friday, February 22, 2008

PODCAST: The British Invasion: New York 1776

It's 1776 and revolution is in the air. Join the Bowery Boys as we tackle the British invasion and takeover of New York City.

Listen to it for free on iTunes or other podcasting services. Or you can download or listen to it HERE

Worked-up New Yorkers, rushing down to Bowling Green to rip down the statue of King George

British troops march on New York, Sept. 15, 1776

A ghastly woodcut displaying the Great Fire of 1776

A depiction of the hanging of Nathan Hale:

Map of the Battle of Harlem Heights (click on map to see detail):

And finally, courtesy of the website of Columbia University:

From past blog entries:
Find out what really happened to that statue of King George.
And last fall we found some modern patriots wrecking havoc downtown.

Thursday, February 21, 2008

Name That Neighborhood: Murray Hill

Some New York neighborhoods are simply named for their location on a map (East Village, Midtown). Others are given prefabricated designations (SoHo, DUMBO). But a few retain names that link them intimately with their pasts.

Murray Hill is one of Manhattan's quieter neighborhoods, extending on the east side from 42nd street to 34th street -- or even down to 28th street, depending on who you speak to. Its eastern border bleeds into Kips Bay. Its one of downtown Manhattan's most obvious hillsides, with its most dynamic centerpiece being the buildings along Madison Avenue, including the gorgeous Morgan Library & Museum.

The Murray of Murray Hill was the successful Quaker merchant Robert Murray who bought this quiet hillside in 1762 and built a spacious home here, which he named Inclenberg, installing a large porch that looked out over the East River. Walk up the hilly part of any street between 33rd and 39th (the land where the farm approximately stretched out) and look east, trying to imagine the buildings melting away and an unobstructed view of the river emerging.

The pride of Murray Hill, however, is not Robert, but his wife Mary Lindley Murray. She was probably looking from her porch on September 15, 1776, when the British landed at Kip's Bay in their eventual takeover of New York. Just a few days prior, Mrs. Murray had entertained the young commander George Washington, whose bedraggled Continental Army, under the command of general Israel Putnam, was heading out of town on the west side (along a path which is today the West Side Highway). With a superior British force in hot pursuit, they would have been easily captured and the American revolution effectively dissolved.

However, as the legend goes, many lives were saved that day and the fate of the Army spared because of a little gracious hosting. As the British force assembled, Mrs. Murray invited the officers, including General William Howe, up to her house for a spot of "cake and wine." Her charms -- and those of her daughters Savannah and Beulah -- must have been irresistable, for the officers stayed for over two hours, while the rebel American forces escaped up to Harlem Heights.

While eventually some of Washington's army would be captured nearby, the bulk of the forces were spared, simply because of the delay brought on by courteous party hosting.

What makes this story all the more compelling is that Mary probably differed politically from her own husband (away in London on business at the time of the invasion) who was a Loyalist to the crown. However members of her own clan, the Lindleys, fought with the Continental Army and Mrs. Murray was clearly sympathetic to the American cause. Of course, her real motives might have been altogether indifferent to the war entirely; regardless, she is undoubtedly one of New York's great hostesses.

For more details, I found this interesting conversation discussing the motives behind Murray's strategic party hosting. The plaque below is located on Park Avenue and 37th Street.

Today, the neighborhood has the unique distinction of having a drag king entertainer named after it.

Wednesday, February 20, 2008

What's your favorite Nathan Hale death spot?

Nathan Hale was a 21 year old Connecticut native who volunteered for George Washington's Continental Army and stayed behind in New York after the Army's retreat in September 1776 in order to gain intelligence from the British. Hale was unfortunately caught -- in Flushing Bay, Queens -- brought to Manhattan and hanged, though not before delivering his elegant last words, "I only regret that I have but one life to give for my country."

He may have had only one life, but he appears to have three separate locales in Manhattan which claim to be the spot he died.

-- A plaque at 65th and 3rd Avenue placed by the New York Historical Society seems to be pretty definitive, being the most recent and shining with that NYHS seal of approval. (The plaque indicates Hale was hung at a place actually on 66th Street.)

-- The Daughters of the American Revolution, however have a plaque at the Yale Club on 44th and Vanderbilt Avenue, proclaiming the same thing

-- Meanwhile, a statue of Nathan Hale standing right in front of City Hall was once proclaimed to be the spot. Back in Revolutionary War days, this was a grassy commons where many public displays were held, so on the surface it seems a possibility

And those are just the theories that haven't been dismissed. Previous speculation to Nathan's hanging spot have include East Broadway on the Lower East Side, the intersection of Madison and Market streets, and somewhere along "the Brooklyn shore."

Pictured: In 1917, a soldier in World War I regalia salutes Hale's statue in City Hall

Tuesday, February 19, 2008

Essex Street's market improvement

Above: Essex Market then....

The Lower East Side this weekend was filled with young fashionable people in their 20s flitting about from restaurant to bar from dusk till the early morning. Of course the neighborhood still has a strong presence from the Puerto Rican and Chinese communities, but they close up well before the nightowls start prowling.

But a hundred years before the streets were quite different, as we mentioned in our podcast this week. Young Jewish entrepreneurs, most off the boat from Europe, made a fine living operating pushcarts through the busy streets, selling cheap eats to bustling community.

Eventually, the Gusses and Schimmels and Russes of the world greated a great amount of traffic in the streets of the Lower East Side. By the 30s it had become a rather cluttered mess, at least to mayor Fiorello Laguardia, who was determined to clear the streets of pushcarts and corner stands while offering a venue for these businessmen to continue selling their products.

The result, built in 1940, was the Essex Street Market at Delancey Street, four large enclosed market areas with room for dozens of vendors to sell every conceivable sort of merchandise.

Many Jewish business, including Schapiro’s Kosher Wines (in operation since 1899), thrived at the Market. (Sadly, Schapiro's closed at the Market last year with the death of propriator Norman Schapiro.)

However, almost as soon as building came up, the neighborhood itself swiftly changed, with Jewish families moving out to communities in Brooklyn and Puerto Rican moving in. Essex Street Market reflected the change, creating the appealing juxtoposition of Jewish and Puerto Rican food stands that still remain today.

The arrival of the supermarket in the 1950s reversed Essex Street Market's fortunes, and two of the four buildings were closed, including the meat market Building D in 1955. Still basically abandoned, Building D was recently home to an installation art project by Mike Nelson.

The market deteriorated during the 80s and 90s until a $1.5 million renovation in 1995 collected all the remaining vendors into one building. The latest incarnation offers an array of shops, from distinctly old school to boutique-y, old inhabitants like Aminova's Barber Shop -- with its curious collection of clocks -- sharing space with vendors of gourmet chocolates and French cheeses.

And in a healthy sign that Essex Market will never completely lose its charm, last year West Village institution Shopsin's moved in, bringing its eccentric owner Kenny Shopsin and that seemingly-infinite menu.

Below: Essex Market now

Saturday, February 16, 2008

History in the making - 2/16

Fred W. McDarrah's photograph of Robert F Kennedy touring a Lower East Side tenement on May 8, 1967, a year before his assassination. He was there visiting the apartment once inhabited by a young Jacob Javits, the New York Senator born to Russian Jewish parents who spent his childhood in the Lower East Side.

What color is the Empire State Building tonight? [Find out here]

Why is East Village's Seventh Street emptying out? [Jeremiah's Vanishing New York]

A New York senator debates an Illinois politician (but one is named Seward, the other Lincoln) [City Room]

Where a midtown Starbucks now sits, Eugene O'Neil was born [Lost City]

Cooper Union unveils the design for its new engineering building. Would Peter Cooper approve? [Curbed]

Friday, February 15, 2008

PODCAST: Katz's Delicatessen

We stop for a nosh at three Jewish culinary stalwarts of the Lower East Side -- Katz's Delicatessen (a movie-friendly dining experience), Russ and Daughters (a tale of herrings and girl power) and the Yonah Schimmel Knishery (and its surprising connection to Coney Island).

Listen to it here or download it from iTunes and other podcast services:

Listen to it for free on iTunes or other podcasting services. Or you can download or listen to it HERE

Inside Katz:

The Lower East Side pushcart and vendor street culture, from the start of the century...

... as late as 1941, on Broome Street. (pic courtesy Charles W Cushman Photography Collection).

Thursday, February 14, 2008

The Pickle Civil War!

It's odd to hear people speak passionately about pickles, as if they're a lifestyle. But that's how people talk about Guss Pickles, the self-proclaimed 'largest pickle emporium in the world' and an institution of the Lower East Side since 1910.

But as you shall see, those calling themselves the 'largest' and that store currently sitting in the Lower East Side are actually warring factions, wielding their pickles like scabbards engaged in a years-long battle for pickle dominance.

Pickles were a popular snack in New York as far back as Dutch New Amsterdam. They're New York's first portable food -- long before the knish and the hot dog -- and fairly easy to produce.

With the huge immigrant boom in lower Manhattan, young men in hopes of making a few bucks would operate a pushcart through the streets selling their wares. In the crowded blocks of Jewish Lower East Side, dozens of pushcarts occupied the streets, competing for customers with sidewalk stands and, for those lucky enough to have the money, actual stores!

(Check out this short silent film demonstrating the daily grind of a pushcart operator.)

Dozens of vendors at the turn of the 20th century sold pickles in the Lower East Side. Izzy Guss, an immigrant from Russia who arrived here in 1910, had a pushcart and sold produce. But he specialized in pickles. Although the competition was fierce -- the area around Essex and Ludlow even called the Pickle District -- Guss eventually bought his own store on crowded Hester Street in 1920, and there, in wooden barrels lining his store front, mastered his recipe for what has become the New York City pickle.

Guss' Pickles are a New York legacy, but a war has brewed for over a decade about who currently holds the mantel of that legacy. Guss eventually bought some pickles from the Lebowitz family-owned United Pickles company. When Guss died in 1975, the business was sold to the Baker family who, in 2004, then sold it to new owner Patricia Fairhurst, who currently runs the the current Lower East Side location on Orchard Street.

However, Andrew Leibowitz of United Pickles lays claim to purchasing the actual Guss trademark from the Bakers when he sold the shop to Fairhurst. According to the Villager, the Bakers claim that Fairhurst 'bought a lease, not a trademark' and that they are the rightful owners of the Guss branding.

Confused? There are apparently two strains of Guss pickles in the universe. Leibowitz alledgedly has hold of the name, but Fairhurst lays claim to the original recipe.

In 2007, the controversy spread to Whole Foods, which began selling Leibowitz' Guss pickles, which Fairhurst claims are not true Guss pickles.

Just to add to the pickle madness, a third claim to the Lower East Side pickle throne has emerged on Essex Street. The Pickle Guys, with their gallons of freshly made pickles, is operated by former employees of Guss pickles. They too may have a legitimate claim in Manhattan's pickle heirarchy. Chowhound provides a taste test between Guss' and Pickle Guys' creations.)

I have a feeling that like the American Revolution, this will not be resolved until blood -- or spilted pickle juice -- is flowing through the street.

Wednesday, February 13, 2008

Who let the dogs in?

Here's a look at the Westminster Kennel Club Dog Show from exactly 100 years ago. The Saint Bernard pictured is named Uncle Sam.

For a look even further back, here's a New York Times article from 1904 regarding a Bronx Kennel Club dog show. It too features Uncle Sam (most likely the same dog).

Despite its slight continental air, the Westminster Kennel Club originated here in New York City in 1877, at the Westminster Hotel, a popular spot for a cigars and scotch for New York's gentlemanly set.

According to William Stifel's book "The Dog Show, 125 Years of Westminster": "They couldn't agree on the name for their new club. But finally someone suggested that they name it after their favorite bar. The idea was unanimously selected, we imagine, with the hoisting of a dozen drinking arms."

A prototype of the Westminster dog show was held at the Philadelphia Exposition in 1876 -- America's first World's Fair. Two other New York City institutions also got their start there : the Statue of Liberty (her head was displayed in an effort to drum up funds and enthusiasm) and the Brooklyn Bridge (the Roebling brothers debuted their wire roping).

The first 'real' Westminster dog show was held the next year at P.T. Barnum's Gilmore's Garden, which was eventually changed to the name Madison Square Garden, its first of four locations in the city. Strange to say, but the dog show is Madison Square Garden's longest running sporting event.

Befitting a sport entrenched in New York City history, it's no surprise that the Empire State Building was lit in the Westminster's signature colors of yellow and purple for the last two nights.

And finally, the Westminster made its own kind of history last night with awarding the best in show to a beagle for the first time ever. Congratulations Uno!

We talked about the Westminster Kennel Club in our podcast about the history of New York City dogs, with some pictures of Westminster's early days.

Monday, February 11, 2008

'Most Wanted': Robert Moses vs. Andy Warhol

Above: a hilariously hideous Robert Moses mosaic, on the sidewalk at Flushing Meadows

Robert Moses wanted the World's Fair of 1964 in Flushing Meadows to be a family affair with little controversial material. Not surprisingly this meant few displays for American art.

So how did an Andy Warhol mural get plastered on the New York State Pavilion, one of the most conspicuous buildings at the fair?

The Pavilion was designed by Philip Johnson, also the designer of Museum of Modern Art's midtown galleries and also the head of architecture and design there. Johnson was an admirer of Warhol's ever since the Museum of Modern Art's pivotal December 1962 show on pop art, where its very merits were dissected by critics.

Johnson commissioned Warhol and other pop artists to create work for the exterior of the pavilion, and the result was 'Thirteen Most Wanted Men', blown-up mugshots of the FBI's most wanted list.

One week before opening to the public, Johnson informed Warhol that the governor objected to the piece, because it just happened to feature mostly Italians and officials feared it would offend Italian visitors.

Warhol, however, knew very well that Moses was behind the objection. And it may not have been anything to do with the content. Andy was becoming a polarizing figure by this time. This was the year Warhol would make his move from artist to icon, the year he opened the Factory, the year he filmed such provocative movies as 'Blow Job' and 'Taylor Mead's Ass', and the year his studios were raided by police and his work confiscated for its offensive content. Andy Warhol was anything but family friendly in 1964.

So his mural was literally whitewashed. Warhol intended to replace it with a new design: 25 silkscreen panels of Robert Moses' face in a Joker-like grin. Unsurprisingly, Johnson did not think this appropriate for the main pavilion of Moses' fair.

A vestige of Warhol's Moses can be found in a mosaic in Flushing Meadows.

By the way, Warhol later claimed in his biography that he was happy that his art was painted over at the pavilion: "Now I wouldn't have to feel responsible if one of the criminals ever got turned in to t he FBI because someone had recognized him from my pictures."

Friday, February 8, 2008

PODCAST: The New York World's Fair of 1964-65

Come with us as we jettison ourselves into the future as it was seen in the past -- namely the 1964-65 World's Fair in Flushing Meadows, Queens. Fans of Robert Moses, 1960s space-age optimism and really, really large tires should take special note to listen.

Listen to it for free on iTunes or other podcasting services. Or you can download or listen to it HERE

The Johnson Wax Pavilion, surrounded in examples of '64 loopy, futuristic architecture.

The Port Authority Heliport, where guest could fly in via helicopter from Manhattan, is one of the few buildings still standing today. It is now Terrace On The Park. (Courtesy here).

Piecing together the heavy US Steel-created Unisphere.

The New York State pavilion -- Tent of Tomorrow! -- as it looked then:

And today.

The New York City Pavilion featured the city of New York in miniature. Called the Panorama, it's still thriving at the Queens Museum and is regularly updated to reflect the changing city. One significant difference: as a memorial, the World Trade Center remains standing in downtown Manhattan.

Many attractions from the World's Fair now make their home in other parts of the world. The Uniroyal tire ferris wheel, for instance, now sits in Allen Park, Michigan, without its seats.

Another favorite, the world's largest cheese, naturally still makes its home in its home state of Wisconsin.

The famous Belgian Village, with the park's defining snack being sold just the left of the picture (i.e. the Bel Gem Waffle).

Dupont's zippy musical 'The World of Chemistry' didn't quite make it to Broadway.

I highly, highly recommend a few website for some further information about the World's Fair. NYWF64 has a exhaustive description of almost every pavilion, including a great many we didnt mention, like The Underground Home, Sinclair's Dinoland, and the Lunar Fountain.

Jeffrey Stanton has an excellent site about it as well.

The World's Fair tire pic is from a great page by Modern Mechanix featuring magazine photos from the beginnings of the fair.

A few months ago we wrote about the Singer Bowl, a World's Fair auditorium that later become the Billie Jean King Tennis Center, home of the U.S. Open.

Find all of our Robert Moses coverage here.