Tuesday, May 29, 2012
Free movies with beer -- legal in Coney Island since 1912
Coney Island's Bowery strip, the most notorious area of the amusement district. In the center of the postcard, you can make out the sign for Wacke's establishment.
What's New York in the summertime without a free outdoor movie? Or for that matter, a regular film night in any New York bar? Believe it or not, this carefree pleasure has its roots in a small but significant decision that was made one hundred years ago this week.
In May of 1912, people were still reeling from the Titanic disaster and sorting through a messy presidential election between four viable presidential candidates (Woodrow Wilson, William Howard Taft, Theodore Roosevelt and Eugene V Debs). But most left their worries behind once they stepped off the train at Coney Island, where the amusement parks were just opening their doors that month, making way for the summer crowds with an even wilder array of rides and shows.
But a brand new entertainment was making itself known in Coney Island -- moving pictures. For instance, when Luna Park threw open its doors on May 25, 1912, the park contained a theater which presented some of the world's first color short films in the British-invented Kinemacolor process. (Here's an example of one of the films that may have exhibited here)
The popularity of motion pictures, which were often exhibited between vaudeville acts or in continuous runs in theaters called nickelodeons, soon exposed the fallacy of one particular New York law. For operators had to have a theater license in order to present a free show, even though, technically, a film could be easily displayed in a non-theatrical environment -- namely, a saloon.
Coney Island theater proprietor Herman Wacke, no stranger to the moving image, is touted by some as the first commercial exhibitor of a motion picture at his Trocadero Hotel in 1893. Wacke's hotel, a stalwart from Coney's early years located along a strip of cabarets and beerhalls affectionately called the Bowery, was nearly destroyed in the fire that consumed Steeplechase in 1907. In 1912, Wacke fanned a few new flames.
He began showing films for free in the saloon as a way to entice people to come in and purchase food and beer. Wacke's was probably the best known of many along the Bowery to exhibit films in this fashion. But the proprietor didn't have a license to do so, and during one particular sting, Wacke was arrested -- "charged with conducting a free show in connection with his bar" -- and fined $5. Not a huge sum of money for a successful saloon owner, and Wacke went willingly, becoming a test case for a law that many certainly thought was rigid and overly meddling.
The charge was eventually overturned by a Kings Country Supreme Court judge who announced that such incidental performances were not subject to the law. The decision was announced in a headline in the May 28, 1912, edition of the New York Evening World: Free "Movies" Are O.K. It Is No Crime If They Accompany The Beer And Hot Dogs.
The law would be challenged again a few years later by the owners of posh Manhattan cabaret Maxim's, who also presented so-called 'free' performances.
As one of America's premier leisure destinations, Coney Island was so closely associated with films of this period that it even starred in a few of them, including Mack Sennett's 'At Coney Island' in 1912. There's even an Edison film from 1903 called 'Rube and Mandy at Coney Island'.
Of course the best Coney Island-themed silent film is the Buster Keaton/ Fatty Arbuckle comedy from 1917.
Top photo courtesy Ephemeral New York.